HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY between 1920 and 1945

  • I) Japanese Photography between 1920 and 1945
  • II) Photographers between 1920 and 1945 excluding Japanese photographers in Japan
  • III) Photographers appeared in annuals between 1920 and 1945

  • E-Mail: nakamuras4@sc.sumitomo-chem.co.jp

    Japanese photography between 1920 and 1945

    There is some information about Japanese photography between 1920 and 1945. Photography between 1920 and 1945 means photography between two World Wars, World War I and World War II, and includes "modern photography," "straight photography," and avant-garde photography (surrealism, dada, photogram, photomontage).

  • A) List of Japanese photographers who were active between 1920 and 1945 classified in groups they were a member of
  • A)-II) List of Japanese photographers in alphabetical order
  • B) List of persons and art museums you can ask questions about Japanese photography between 1920 and 1945
  • C) List of most important exhibition catalogues on Japanese photography between 1920 and 1945
  • C)-II) Some other important exhibition catalogues in Japan
  • C)-III) Some important Japanese books for photography
  • D) Brief Chronology for Japanese modern photography from 1920 to 1945
  • E) Art Exhibitions in Japan which relate to Photography and/or other Visual Arts between 1920 and 1945 (after June 1998)

    D) Brief Chronology for Japanese Modern Photography from 1920 to 1945
    [Top of I)] [go to A)] [go to A)-II)] [go to B)] [go to C)] [go to C)-II)] [go to C)-III)] [go to E)] / [go to II)]

    1922: Nihon Koga Geijutsu Kyokai was founded by FUCHIKAMI Hakuyo
    1922: The first issue of Hakuyo was published by FUCHIKAMI Hakuyo [-1926]
    1923: The first issue of Asahi Graph was published
    1923: "Hikari to Sono Kaicho (Light and Its Harmony)" by FUKUHARA Shinzo
    1924: The first issue of Photo Times was published
    1926: The first issue of Asahi Camera was published
    1926: Kinreisha (the first advertising photo studio in Japan) was founded by KANAMARU Shigene and SUZUKI Hachiro
    1928: Nihon Koga Kyokai was founded by YAMAMOTO Makihiko
    1930: Shinko-Shashin Kenkyukai was founded by KIMURA Sen'ichi
    1930: Ashiya Camera Club was founded by NAKAYAMA Iwata
    1930: Tanpei Shashin Club was founded by YASUI Nakaji and UEDA Bizan
    1931: German International Traveling Photography Exhibition [This was a traveling exhibition of "Film und Foto" in Stuttgart, Germany in 1929] in Tokyo [April] and Osaka [July]
    1931: "Dai Tokyo no Seikaku (The Character of Great Tokyo)" by HORINO Masao
    1931: "Shuto Kanryu - Sumida-gawa Album (Flowing Through the City - Sumida River Album)" by HORINO Masao
    1932: "Camera. Me x Tetsu. Kosei (Camera, Eye/Steel, Composition)" by HORINO Masao
    1932: The first issue of Koga was published by NOJIMA Yasuzo [-1933]
    1933: "Shoka Shinkei (Early Summer Nerves)" by KOISHI Kiyoshi
    1933: Nippon Kobo was founded by NATORI Yonosuke
    1933: The first issue of Manchuria Graph was published [-1944]
    1933: The first issue of Shashin Salon was published
    1934: The first issue of NIPPON was published by Nippon Kobo [-1944]
    1934: Chuo Kobo was founded
    1935: The first issue of Camera Art was published
    1935: The first issue of Home Life was published
    1936: The first issue of Camera Club was published
    1936: The first issue of Graphic was published
    1936: "Nemuri no Riyu (The Reason for Sleep)" was published by Ei-Q
    1937: Avant-Garde Zoei Shudan was founded
    1937: Chugoku Photographers Group was founded
    1938: Zen'ei Shashin Kyokai was founded
    1938: Seinen Hodo Shashin Kenkyukai was founded
    1938: The first issue of Shashin Shuho was published [-1944]
    1939: Nagoya Photo Avant-Garde was founded
    1939: Societe IRF was founded
    1940: "Mesem Zoku" was published by SHIMOZATO Yoshio
    1940: "Hikari (Light)" was published by Tanpei Shashin Club
    1940: Hodo Gijutsu Kenkyukai was founded by YAMANA Ayao
    1941: Tohosha was founded
    1942: The first issue of FRONT was published by Tohosha [-1945]
    1943: "Uchiteshiyamamu (Ever Onward)" by KANAMARU Shigene [a big mural photograph]

    cf. other important historical events between 1920 and 1945

    (1914: World War I)
    1920: Japan joined the League of Nations
    1922: USSR was established
    1923: The Great Kanto Earthquake (JAPAN)
    1925: Promulgation of the Peace Preservation Law (JAPAN)
    1928: Ghang Tso-lin (Cho Saku-lin, one of the leaders in China) was killed by Japan Army's premeditation (CHINA)
    1929: World Crisis (originated in New York)
    1931: The Manchurian Incident -> 1932: "Manchukuo" was established (by Japan)
    1932: The coup d'état 5.15 (The Prime Minister INUKAI was killed.); -> failed (JAPAN)
    1933: Japan left the League of Nations
    1936: The coup d'état 2.26; -> failed (JAPAN)
    1937: Japan-China War began
    1939: World War II in Europe began
    1940: The tripple alliance among Germany, Italy and Japan
    1941: TAKIGUCHI Shuzo (art critic, artist) and FUKUZAWA Ichiro (painter) were arrested on the suspicion of the violation of the Peace Preservation Law. (The Japan Government tried to suppress the avand-garde arts in Japan, using the preservation of peace as an excuse.) (JAPAN)
    1941: Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, USA; World War II in the Pacific Sea (the Pacific War) began
    1945: atomic bombs in Hiroshima and in Nagasaki
    1945: Japan was defeated in World War II

    NOTE1: About names of Japanese people
    In Japan, generally we write a last (family) name first and then a first (given) name. For me, "NAKAMURA, Satoshi." (NAKAMURA is my last name and Satoshi is my first name.) But especially in letters written in American or European language, we often follow the rule of America and Europe. I mean we write a first (given) name first and then a last (family) name. For me, "Satoshi NAKAMURA." (Satoshi is my first name and NAKAMURA is my last name.)
    Sometimes this confuses American and European people as to which out of two parts of Japanese name is a first name and a last name.
    In my information, I write names of Japanese people as below;
    1) For photographers: write a last name first and then, after a comma (,), a first name, like NAKAMURA, Satoshi;
    (In D) above, I do not use a comma (,) at all because to use a comma will rather make you confused as to how many photographers are mentioned.)
    2) For curators or critics: write a first name first and then, without a comma, a last name, like Satoshi NAKAMURA.
    In any cases, I write last names by using only CAPITAL letters, like NAKAMURA.
    I hope that it does not make you confused.

    As such, if you try to search names of Japanese people by "full name search," please search by two ways. For example, when you search my name "Satoshi NAKAMURA," please search both "Satoshi NAKAMURA" and "NAKAMURA Satoshi." You may know the reason why by reading above texts. Some people use "Satoshi NAKAMURA" on the web, but other people might use "NAKAMURA Satoshi."

    NOTE2: As to exhibition catalogs in Japan
    I think it is very strange to you, but in Japan we cannot buy exhibition catalogs through bookshops. I mean if we want to buy an exhibition catalog, we have to contact directly the museum where such exhibition has been or was held. We cannot order exhibition catalogs at bookshops. Further, in some cases, we cannot buy exhibition catalogs even at the museums. In such cases, we have to contact directly a newspaper company, for example Asahi Shimbun or Yomiuri Shimbun, which organized the exhibition in question. I do not know exactly why, but I heard before it is because of copyright of reproductions in catalogs. I do not know that reason is true or not, but unluckily the rest of what I have told above is true. And the worst result of this situation for me, is that because exhibition catalogs are not available in the usual distribution channel for books, public libraries are reluctant to own exhibition catalogs. If we request public libraries to buy some Japanese exhibition catalogs, public libraries will say that they cannot buy them only because they are exhibition catalogs. Therefore, in Japan if we want to see exhibition catalogs in libraries, we have to go to art museum libraries. But unfortunately there are very few museum libraries in Japan. I think the best museum library for photography in Japan is one in the Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography and the best museum library for contemporary art is one in the Museum of Contemporary Art Tokyo.

    I have not mentioned the price of five exhibition catalogs I have listed above, because I do not know the precise price. But I think we can buy each one of those catalogs with about 2,000 or 2,500 Japanese yen. (US$1 is about 110 or 120 Japanese yen now.)

    NOTE3: Japanese photographers outside Japan
    Even during 1920 and 1945, there were many Japanese photographers who were active outside Japan, especially in California and Hawaii, USA. But in Japan, a study of Japanese photographers who were active outside Japan is far behind, I am afraid. I do not know any Japanese books which are dealing mainly with this matter. It is very difficult in Japan, I think, to see in a book reproductions of even works of Harry K. Shigeta. Therefore, If you need information about Japanese photography or photographers outside Japan, I recommend that you contact museums, libraries or archives at the place in question instead those in Japan. For example, if you need information as to Japanese photographers in Hawaii, please contact institutions in Hawaii, such as the Contemporary Museum in Honolulu. I know two catalogues which are dealing with Japanese photographers active in the Unites States. Also please refer to those catalogues.

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    Please send e-mail to me in English: nakamuras4@sc.sumitomo-chem.co.jp

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    URL: http://historyofphoto.ikaduchi.com/photo07.html
    (formerly at http://www.geocities.com/history_of_photography_1920_1945/photo07.html)
    First Created on September 12, 1997
    Last updated and modified on November 8, 2003
    Moved to the current URL on September 26, 2009
    Copyright © 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2003 by Satoshi NAKAMURA